The commitment of U.S. troops to "combat duty" marks a shift from the Obama administration's strategy.
The first woman Marine to pass the Infantry Officer Course will graduate Monday and be qualified to lead a platoon in combat.
Lt. Gen. Glenn Walters hailed the progress that Marines have made in integrating the ranks.
The pilot program will allow the service to study whether the incentive pay helps retain airmen in high-performing fields.
The White House has yet to sign off on the call by the U.S. commander in Afghanistan for more troops.